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Cervical cancer

Definition
  • Neoplasia of cervical cells
Risk Factors
  • HPV infection
    • type and duration of viral infection
    • host conditions that compromise immunity
    • environmental factors such as smoking, oral contraceptive use, or vitamin deficiencies
  • Sex at a young age
  • Multiple sexual partners
  • Promiscuous male partners
  • History of sexually transmitted diseases
Differential diagnosis
Epidemiology

Aetiology

Clinical features
  • Abnormal Papanicolaou test result
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding, usually postcoital
  • Vaginal discomfort
  • Malodorous discharge
  • Dysuria
Pathophysiology

Investigations
  • Papanicolaou test
  • Colposcopy, direct biopsies, and endocervical curettage
  • Complete blood cell count and serum chemistry for renal and hepatic functions
Management

a) conservative

b) medical

c) surgical

Prognosis
  • May extend upward to the endometrial cavity, downward to the vagina, and laterally to the pelvic wall
  • Can invade the bladder and rectum directly
  • Symptoms that can evolve:
    • constipation
    • hematuria
    • fistula
    • ureteral obstruction
      • with or without hydroureter or hydronephrosis
  • Distant metastases
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