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Laryngospasm

Definition

  • Laryngospasm is an uncontrolled/involuntary muscular contraction (spasm) of the laryngeal cords.
  • The Laryngospasms are an American medical parody group composed of four Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs). The group performs regularly for a variety of medical conferences and charity groups throughout the United States and Canada.[1]

Risk Factors

  • Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) aka extraesophageal reflux disease (EERD)
  • Post-operative
  • Paediatric (WHY??)
Differential diagnosis



Epidemiology



Aetiology 

Triggered when the vocal cords or the area of the trachea below the cords detects the entry of water, mucus, blood, or other substance.

Clinical features

Typically lasts less than 30 or 60 seconds, and causes a partial blocking of breathing in, while breathing out remains easier.

Pathophysiology



Investigations



Management

a) conservative

Hyperextending the patient's neck and administering assisted ventilation with 100% oxygen

b) medical

Intravenous muscle relaxant such as Succinylcholine

c) surgical

Reintubate

Prognosis

In children, the condition can be particularly deadly, leading to cardiac arrest with 30-45 seconds, and is a frequent cause of death associated with the induction of general anesthesia in the paediatric population.

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