Final year‎ > ‎

14.01.22 Antiemetics

Antihistamines (H1 histamine receptor antagonists)
  • Indications
    • Motion sickness, morning sickness, opioid nausea
  • Side effects

  • Examples
    • Cyclizine
    • Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
    • Dimenhydrinate
    • Doxylamine
    • Meclozine 
    • Promethazine 
    • Hydroxyzine

Dopamine antagonists
  • Indications
    • Neoplastic disease, radiation sickness, opioids, cytotoxic drugs, general anaesthetics
  • Side effects include
    • Muscle spasms, restlessness
  • Examples
    • Domperidone 
    • Olanzapine 
    • Droperidol
    • Haloperidol
    • Chlorpromazine
    • Promethazine
    • Prochlorperazine (Stemetil)
    • Alizapride
    • Metoclopramide

5-HT3 receptor antagonists
  • Indications
    • Post-operative and cytotoxic drug nausea & vomiting
  • Side effects
    • Constipation or diarrhea, dry mouth, fatigue
  • Examples
    • Ondansetron
    • Dolasetron 
    • Granisetron 
    • Tropisetron 
    • Palonosetron
    • Mirtazapine 

Anticholinergics
  • Examples
    • Hyoscine

Steroids
  • Indications
    • General anaesthetic
  • Examples
    • Dexamethasone 

Cannabinoids 
  • Indications
    • Cachexia, cytotoxic nausea/vomiting, unresponsive to other agents
  • Side effects
    • Changes in perception, dizziness, and loss of coordination
  • Examples
    • Cannabis 
    • Dronabinol
    • Synthetic cannabinoids - Nabilone (Cesamet), JWH series
    • Sativex 

Benzodiazepines
  • Indications
    • General anaesthetic
  • Examples
    • Midazolam 
    • Lorazepam 

Neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist
  • Indications
    • Chemotherapy, esp. delayed emesis
  • Examples
    • Aprepitant 

Other
  • Trimethobenzamide
    • Thought to work on the CTZ
  • Ginger 
    • Contains 5HT3 antagonists gingerols and shogaols
  • Emetrol 
  • Propofol
  • Peppermint 
  • Muscimol 
  • Ajwain 
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