P year‎ > ‎Specialties‎ > ‎

13.03.01 ENT - Airway obstruction

Noises
  • Stridor
    • Inspiratory
      • Obstruction is above the vocal cords
    • Biphasic
      • Obstruction is at the level of the vocal cords
    • Expiratory
      • Obstruction is just below the vocal cords
  • Sturtor
    • Obstruction in oropharynx
      • Tongue swelling
      • Ludwig's angina
      • Anaphylaxis
      • Angioedema
  • Wheeze
    • Lower airway obstruction


Causes of stridor in a child

  • Croup
    • 2-4 years
    • Parainfluenza virus
  • Laryngomalacia
    • Most common cause in infancy
    • Esp. <2 yrs
    • Soft, immature cartilage of the upper larynx collapses inward during inhalation
    • Exacerbated by reflux
  • Laryngospasm
  • Long intubation
    • => Granuloma formation => Subglottic stenosis
  • Vocal nerve palsy


Laryngeal nerve

  • Left branch loops under the aorta
    • Lower + longer => More risk of damage
  • Right branch loops under the right subclavian artery


Tracheostomy

  • Between second and third tracheal rings
  • Be careful not to do it through a tumour => Spread/Poor prognosis
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