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  • Only chemokine also labelled an interleukin
  • Neutrophil chemoattractant

List of interleukins

Name Source [1] Target cells[1] Function[1]
IL-1 macrophages, B cells, monocytes [3], dendritic cells [3] T helper cells co-stimulation [3]
B cells maturation & proliferation [3]
NK cells activation[3]
macrophages, endothelium, other inflammation[3], small amounts induce acute phase reaction, large amounts induce fever
IL-2 Th1-cells activated[3] T cells and B cells, NK cells, macrophages, oligodendrocytes stimulates growth and differentiation of T cell response. Can be used in immunotherapy to treat cancer or suppressed for transplant patients. Has also been used in clinical trials (ESPIRIT. Stalwart) to raise CD4 counts in HIV positive patients.
IL-3 activated T helper cells[3], mast cells, NK cells, endothelium, eosinophils hematopoietic stem cells differentiation and proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells [3] to e.g. erythrocytes, granulocytes
mast cells growth and histamine release[3]
IL-4 Th2 cells, just activated naive CD4+ cell, memory CD4+ cells, mast cells, macrophages activated B cells proliferation and differentiation, IgG1 and IgE synthesis[3]. Important role in allergic response (IgE)
T cells proliferation[3]
IL-5 Th2 cells, mast cells, eosinophils eosinophils production
B cells differentiation, IgA production
IL-6 macrophages, Th2 cells, B cells, astrocytes, endothelium activated B cells differentiation into plasma cells
plasma cells antibody secretion
hematopoietic stem cells differentiation
T cells, others induces acute phase reaction, hematopoiesis, differentiation, inflammation
IL-7 bone marrow stromal cells and thymus stromal cells pre/pro-B cell, pre/pro-T cell, NK cells differentiation and proliferation of lymphoid progenitor cells, involved in B, T, and NK cell survival, development, and homeostasis, ↑proinflammatory cytokines
IL-8 macrophages, lymphocytes, epithelial cells, endothelial cells neutrophils, basophils, lymphocytes Neutrophil chemotaxis
IL-9 Th2 cells, specifically by CD4+ helper cells T cells, B cells Potentiates IgM, IgG, IgE, stimulates mast cells
IL-10 monocytes, Th2 cells, CD8+ T cells, mast cells, macrophages, B cell subset macrophages cytokine production[3]
B cells activation [3]
mast cells
Th1 cells inhibits Th1 cytokine production (IFN-γ, TNF-β, IL-2)
Th2 cells Stimulation
IL-11 bone marrow stroma bone marrow stroma acute phase protein production, osteoclast formation
IL-12 dendritic cells, B cells, T cells, macrophages activated [3] T cells, differentiation into Cytotoxic T cells with IL-2[3], ↑ IFN-γ, TNF-α, ↓ IL-10
NK cells IFN-γ, TNF-α
IL-13 activated Th2 cells, mast cells, NK cells TH2-cells, B cells, macrophages Stimulates growth and differentiation of B cells (IgE), inhibits TH1-cells and the production of macrophage inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1, IL-6), ↓ IL-8, IL-10, IL-12
IL-14 T cells and certain malignant B cells activated B cells controls the growth and proliferation of B cells, inhibits Ig secretion
IL-15 mononuclear phagocytes (and some other cells), especially macrophages following infection by virus(es) T cells, activated B cells Induces production of Natural killer cells
IL-16 lymphocytes, epithelial cells, eosinophils, CD8+ T cells CD4+ T cells (Th-cells) CD4+ chemoattractant
IL-17 T helper 17 cells (Th17) epithelium, endothelium, other osteoclastogenesis, angiogenesis, ↑ inflammatory cytokines
IL-18 macrophages Th1 cells, NK cells Induces production of IFNγ, ↑ NK cell activity
IL-19 -
IL-20 -
regulates proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes
IL-21 activated T helper cells, NKT cells All lymphocytes, dendritic cells costimulates activation and proliferation of CD8+ T cells, augment NK cytotoxicity, augments CD40-driven B cell proliferation, differentiation and isotype switching, promotes differentiation of Th17 cells
IL-22 -
Activates STAT1 and STAT3 and increases production of acute phase proteins such as serum amyloid A, Alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and haptoglobin in hepatoma cell lines
IL-23 -
Increases angiogenesis but reduces CD8 T-cell infiltration
IL-24 -
Plays important roles in tumor suppression, wound healing and psoriasis by influencing cell survival.
IL-25 -
Induces the production IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, which stimulate eosinophil expansion
IL-26 -
Enhances secretion of IL-10 and IL-8 and cell surface expression of CD54 on epithelial cells
IL-27 -
Regulates the activity of B lymphocyte and T lymphocytes
IL-28 -
Plays a role in immune defense against viruses
IL-29 -
Plays a role in host defenses against microbes
IL-30 -
Forms one chain of IL-27
IL-31 -
May play a role in inflammation of the skin
IL-32 -
Induces monocytes and macrophages to secrete TNF-α, IL-8 and CXCL2
IL-33 -
Induces helper T cells to produce type 2 cytokine
IL-35 regulatory T cells
Suppression of T helper cell activation