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12.10.17 Brain tumours

Classification
  • Gliomas
    • 50.3%
  • Meningiomas
    • 20.9%
  • Pituitary adenomas
    • 15%
  • Nerve sheath tumors
    • 8%


Grading

  • Low-grade
    • WHO grade II
    • Well-differentiated (not anaplastic)
  • High-grade
    • WHO grade III-IV
    • Undifferentiated (anaplastic)


Gliomas

  • Ependymomas
    • Ependyma is the thin epithelial membrane lining the ventricular system of the brain and the spinal cord
    • Common location of intracranial ependymoma is the fourth ventricle
  • Astrocytomas 
    • Slow growing astrocytoma (grade I)
    • Slow growing astrocytoma (grade II)
    • Anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III)
    • Glioblastoma multiforme (grade IV)
      • May form by progression from lower grades (10%)
  • Oligodendrogliomas
  • Mixed gliomas
    • Such as oligoastrocytomas


Glial cell types

  • Astrocytes
    • Chemistry
  • Oligodendrocytes
    • Myelin
  • Ependymal cells
    • CSF
  • Radial glia
    • Progenitors/Scaffold
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