Cervical cancer


    • Neoplasia of cervical cells

Risk Factors

    • HPV infection

      • type and duration of viral infection

      • host conditions that compromise immunity

      • environmental factors such as smoking, oral contraceptive use, or vitamin deficiencies

    • Sex at a young age

    • Multiple sexual partners

    • Promiscuous male partners

    • History of sexually transmitted diseases

Differential diagnosis



Clinical features

    • Abnormal Papanicolaou test result

    • Abnormal vaginal bleeding, usually postcoital

    • Vaginal discomfort

    • Malodorous discharge

    • Dysuria



    • Papanicolaou test

    • Colposcopy, direct biopsies, and endocervical curettage

    • Complete blood cell count and serum chemistry for renal and hepatic functions


a) conservative

b) medical

c) surgical


    • May extend upward to the endometrial cavity, downward to the vagina, and laterally to the pelvic wall

    • Can invade the bladder and rectum directly

    • Symptoms that can evolve:

      • constipation

      • hematuria

      • fistula

      • ureteral obstruction

        • with or without hydroureter or hydronephrosis

    • Distant metastases